The signals from the four button electrodes are fed into the BPM module. The module processes the signals sequentially to give 3 analog output voltages: X, Y and Sum.
Four on-board variable 1-dB attenuators are used to equalize the button signals. Four on-board microstrip low-pass filters eliminate the unwanted beam harmonics before the signals are multiplexed by four GaAs switches. The switches close one at a time under the control of a local clock, sampling each button 2000 times per second. An external clock signal can override this onboard clock, to sample every button up to 10 000 times per second. The outputs of the four switches give a sequential signal, which is filtered by an on-board tunable band-pass filter. This filter allows easy selection of the chosen beam harmonic to be used. A low-noise preamplifier amplifies the signal under automatic gain control. A superheterodyne receiver processes the signal.
A mixer gives the intermediate frequency using its own on-board synthesized local oscillator. The LO frequency is given by a string of bits generated by a plug-in programmable frequency key. The automatic gain control of the intermediate frequency amplifier normalizes the sum of all button signals. A PLL synchronous demodulator provides high linearity. The demodulated signal is filtered and memorized by four sample-and-hold circuits under the control of the button scanning clock. The X and Y positions are obtained from the memorized value of the four buttons. Only additions and subtractions are needed to obtain the X and Y positions, because the sum of all four buttons is normalized at all times to a constant value.
The Beam Position Monitor (BPM) is an all-analog electronics module with superior performance in a very small volume
On-board microstrip filters eliminate the need for costly tubular filters
GaAs switches provide superior button-to-button isolation and low insertion loss
On-board synthesized local oscillator eliminates the problem of external oscillator signal distribution with power splitters
Automatic Gain Control range >90dB provides optimum level for demodulator, independent of beam intensity, number of bunches
Phase-locked synchronous demodulation gives high linearity and noise suppression
Button signal range –70dBm…+5dBm at selected harmonic
X / Y output ±10V, 0V for on-center beam
Beam intensity range
X: ±10V, A-B-C+D, or D-B Y: ±10V, A+B-C-D, or A-C Sum: A+B+C+D constant value (≈3V)
User’s choice. 1V/mm recommended
<2mV [0…1kHz] in ±10V @ +5dBm <5mV [0…1kHz] in ±10V @ -35dBm <50mV [0…1kHz] in ±10V @ -60dBm